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1. Pathways of substrate generation

The synthases and glycosyl transferases involved in the synthesis of cell-wall polysaccharides use nucleotide-sugars exclusively as activated substrates. The de novo synthesis of cell-wall monosaccharides occurs via the nucleotide-sugar interconversion pathways.
When hydrolyzed from polysaccharides, several monosaccharides made via this pathway are salvaged into the nucleotide-sugar pools by C-1 kinases and nucleotide-diphosphate-pyrophosphorylases. Genes of several epimerases and C-1 kinases have been identified but their specific functions have not been confirmed.

1.1 Nucleotide-sugar interconversion pathways
1.2 C-1 kinases and sugar salvage pathways
1.3 Pathways of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis

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